Q1. What is the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) of 2019? The new Citizenship Act entitles the refugees belonging to religious minorities like Hindus, Sikhs, Jains, Christians, Parsis and Buddhists living in India before 31st December, 2014 or migrated to India after the date for a citizenship in India after five years of their residence in the country. Q2. The refugees from which countries? From the neighboring countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh and not any other country except these 3. Q3. Whom does this Act entitle for Citizenship? The Act allows the above communities to get citizenship on the basis that these communities face strong religious persecution in the 3 neighboring countries of India. Q4. Muslims kept out of this law. Does it mean they will never get citizenship in India? A different law that entitles the laws for citizenship says that any individual seeking citizenship in India needs to be a resident of India for 11 years and Muslims from these countries can apply for citizenship in India under this law. Q5. What about the illegal Muslim immigrants in India? They will be deported back to their respective countries, not immediately but after following legal procedures. Q6. Does this Act entitle other forms of persecution? No, the act only entitles religious persecution i.e. the difficulties faced by the above communities because they belong to a minority religion in the above countries. Q7. Why only these three countries? These three countries have a major population of people who belong to the Muslim community and these countries have a history of practicing pervasive, institutionalized and systemic persecution against the people of the above 6 communities. Q8. Does this law affect Muslims or any other community already a citizen of India? The act doesn’t affect the Indian Muslims or people of other communities already living in the country as citizens, in any way. Q9. Why India have an obligation to take care of the refugees? India is obliged to give a home to refugees under the rules of the UN but not obliged to give citizenship as the refugees can return to their homelands once the conditions improve. But the law acknowledges the fact that the condition of the Hindus and the other above communities are less likely to improve in the above 3 countries thus entitling them for citizenship.
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